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GLOSSARY OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR TERMS

Active Voice
In the active voice, the subject of the verb does the action (eg They killed the President). See also Passive Voice.

Cümlede fiilin etken çatıda olduğu durum "Active Voice"dur.

Adjective
A word like big, red, easy, French etc. An adjective describes a noun or pronoun.

Cümlede ismi niteleyen sözcüklere "Adjective" denilir: Sıfat.

Adverb
A word like slowly, quietly, well, often etc. An adverb modifies a verb.

Cümlede fiili niteleyen sözcüklere "Adverb" denir: Zarf.

Article
The "indefinite" articles are a and an. The "definite article" is the.

İngilizce'de, "the, a, an" gibi edatlara "Article" denilir.

Auxiliary Verb
A verb that is used with a main verb. Be, do and have are auxiliary verbs. Can, may, must etc are modal auxiliary verbs.

Cümlenin ana yüklemiyle kullanılan yardımcı fiiller "Auxiliary Verbs" olarak bilinir.

Clause
A group of words containing a subject and its verb (for example: It was late when he arrived).

"Clause" için cümlecik veya yantümce diyebiliriz.

Conjunction
A word used to connect words, phrases and clauses (for example: and, but, if).

Genellikle yantümceyi ana cümleye bağlayan bağlaçlara "Conjunction" denilmektedir.

Infinitive
The basic form of a verb as in to work or work.

Fiilin master hali veya isim olarak kullanıldığı durumlara "Infinitive" denilebilir.

Interjection
An exclamation inserted into an utterance without grammatical connection (for example: oh!, ah!, ouch!, well!).

İngilizce'de "Aaa, Oh!" gibi ünlemlere "Interjection" denilmektedir.

Modal Verb
An auxiliary verb like can, may, must etc that modifies the main verb and expresses possibility, probability etc. It is also called "modal auxiliary verb".

Kip belirtici fiillere "Modals" denilir. Mesela, "can" -ebilmek, "must" -meli gibi kipler "Modla Verbs"dir.

Noun
A word like table, dog, teacher, America etc. A noun is the name of an object, concept, person or place. A "concrete noun" is something you can see or touch like a person or car. An "abstract noun" is something that you cannot see or touch like a decision or happiness. A "countable noun" is something that you can count (for example: bottle, song, dollar). An "uncountable noun" is something that you cannot count (for example: water, music, money).

İngilizce'de isimler, "Nouns" terimiyle ifade edilir.

Object
In the active voice, a noun or its equivalent that receives the action of the verb. In the passive voice, a noun or its equivalent that does the action of the verb.

Cümlenin nesnesi; "Object".

Participle
The -ing and -ed forms of verbs. The -ing form is called the "present participle". The -ed form is called the "past participle" (for irregular verbs, this is column 3).

İngilizce'de ortaç; "Participle". Bazen fiillere eklenen -ed ve -ing gibi eklere "Participle" diye hitap edilir.

Part Of Speech
One of the eight classes of word in English - noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction and interjection.

Cümlenin öğeleri: "Part of Speech".

Passive Voice
In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb (eg The President was killed). See also Active Voice.

Edilgenlik; "Passive Voice". Cümlede fiilin edilgen çatıda olması durumu "Passive Voice terimi ile ifade edilir.

Phrase
A group of words not containing a subject and its verb (eg on the table, the girl in a red dress).

Sözcük öbeği veya bir kaç sözcükten oluşan anlamlı ifadelere "Phrase" denilir.

Preposition
A word like at, to, in, over etc. Prepositions usually come before a noun and give information about things like time, place and direction.

Edatlar, ilgeçler; "Preposition".

Pronoun
A word like I, me, you, he, him, it etc. A pronoun replaces a noun.

Zamir, adıl; "Pronoun". Cümlede ismin yerini tutan sözcüklere zamir denilmektedir: ben, sen, o, bizi, size gibi..

Sentence
A group of words that express a thought. A sentence conveys a statement, question, exclamation or command. A sentence contains or implies a subject and a predicate. In simple terms, a sentence must contain a verb and (usually) a subject. A sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop (.), question mark (?) or exclamation mark (!).

Cümle; "Sentence". İngilize'de cümleler mutlaka bir özne (Subject) ve bir fiilden (Verb) oluşturulmalıdır. Öznenin kullanılmadığı nadir durumlar da mevcuttur.

Subject
Every sentence contains (or implies) two parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject is the main noun (or equivalent) in a sentence about which something is said.

Cümlenin öznesi; "Subject".

Tense
The form of a verb that shows us when the action or state happens (past, present or future). Note that the name of a tense is not always a guide to when the action happens. The "present continuous tense", for example, can be used to talk about the present or the future.

İngilizce'de zamanlar; "Tenses".

Verb
A word like (to) work, (to) love, (to) begin. A verb describes an action or state.

Fiil veya yüklem; "Verb".